Frequently Asked Questions
- Are venoms dangerous to work with?
- How much venom is provided in each fraction?
- What final assay volume can be achieved?
- How many different substances are there in each fraction?
- What concentration are the venom fractions active at?
- What buffer should I dissolve the fractions in?
- Can I use DMSO?
- Can venom peptides be made into drugs?
- What is the Nagoya Protocol Biodiversity?
- Are venom peptides immunogenic?
- Do our cosmetic venom peptides contain any animal products?
FAQs - Answers
Are venoms dangerous to work with?
Venom fractions supplied by Venomtech are no more dangerous to work with than many other pharmaceutical actives. Venoms do contain toxic compounds (proteins and peptides) but we supply full Safety Data Sheets (SDS) with our shipments and will happily send them in advance. In practice systems used for screening pharmaceutical actives are suitable for screening venoms and fractions thereof. Such systems include local exhaust ventilation for dissolving powders, once used any left overs can be disposed via autoclave with the other biological material from the assay.
How much venom is provided in each fraction?
200ng protein is supplied. The amount of venom provided is standardised according to protein content. Protein content is determined by microspectrophotometry.
Can I use DMSO?
We advise to avoid the use of DMSO as it can sulphonate proteins and peptides and thus there is the potential to modify the unknown and make deconvolution and identification very difficult.
Can venom peptides be made into drugs?
Yes, there are venom peptides already on the market such as Byetta®, Echistatin and Prialt® but also venoms have been used in the discovery of other drugs such as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like Captopril®, and peptomimetics like Eptifibatide.
What is the Nagoya Protocol on Biodiversity?
Entering into force on 12 October 2014, The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way.
Are venom peptides immunogenic?
Venom peptides useful in drug discovery, cosmetics and crop science are poorly recognised by the immune systems of animals that they rarely illicit an immune response, even when one is needed. Many venom components, especially small peptides, are poorly immunogenic. However whole snake venoms do elicit immune reactions including anaphylaxis in humans. Because of the risk of whole venom sensitisation, we operate strict, safe systems of work, including local exhaust ventilation to protect our staff.
Do our cosmetic venom peptides contain any animal products?
Our peptides are manufactured synthetically . They mimic the power of evolution and do not contain any animal products. These peptides have built in stabilisation and are non-toxic to human cells in culture.
Why are venoms useful in Drug Discovery?
Animal venoms have not evolved to cure our diseases, so why should venoms have potential in drug discovery?
Conserved evolution: The targets that venoms have evolved to hit in their prey have also evolved in humans and are highly conserved. A Na+ ion channel vital for insect life has evolved in humans and is involved in pain transmission. A venom that evolved to kill insects can have potential as a therapeutic agent in treating pain.
Known mechanisms of action: Many venoms have actions on their prey that are desirable for treating specific diseases. e.g. snake venoms that lower blood pressure will have potential in treating hypertension or spider venoms that block pain receptors.
Why are venoms useful in cosmetics?
Just like in drug discovery, good active ingredients in cosmetics act on relevant targets. Venoms can be made safe for cosmetic use by only selecting the key active peptide and not using the parts involved in the toxic pathways. This is the essence of our VenomSELECT service. See Mibelle’s website for one of our early success stories – SensAmone-P5.
Why are venoms useful in crop protection?
Arthropod venoms have evolved to kill insects effectively and many are selective to particular species. However some snakes also prey on invertebrates and thus have invertebrate specific toxins.
How should we store the T-VDA™?
We recommend storage at -20°C upon receipt. Lyophilised T-VDAs™ are shipped at ambient temperature, as they are stable for several weeks.
Can we reuse the T-VDA™?
Typically the arrays are single-shot with enough material for a backup. If you do have some left over they can be frozen at -20°C and reused. It is best to avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend no more than three.
How stable are the venoms?
Venoms are intrinsically very stable proteins and remain stable and active in most biological (biochemical and cell based) assays.
Can we refreeze unused venom?
Yes, but do not freeze thaw more than three times
Can the T-VDA™ be used in Phenotypic screens?
Yes, our T-VDAs™ can be used in any biochemical or cell based assay like any other compound array. We have found fractionated T-VDAs perform well in Phenotypic assays.
How many components are in venoms?
Venoms contain several hundred components, which is why we provide them in the 2D fractionated T-VDA™. A typical T-VDA contains 1-5 entities per well and avoids the complex poly-pharmacology of the whole venom while being less expensive than a single entity array.
What molecules are found in venom?
1-10KDa peptides predominate a lot of the venoms, with larger peptides, proteins and small molecules (such as acylpolyamines) also present.
How many venoms are in the Venomtech Library?
Approximately 200 Species; which can be fractionated into ~20,000 fractions.
What is the composition of the Venomtech Library?
Library composition - 30% snakes, 30% tarantula, 10% true spiders, 20% scorpions, 10% others (jellyfish, insects, etc.)
Are Venomtech T-VDA™ plates compatible with automation?
We always supply our T-VDAs in SBS plates, usually Echo compatible 384, but 384LDV, 96 and 1536 are also available. Please enquire about your preferred assay plate.
What hit rate can I expect?
Customers typically report a 1-3% hit rate from screening our T-VDAs.
Should I use blocking proteins such as BSA?
Although proteins and peptides are known to potentially stick to plastics, they also can stick to other proteins. Therefore we recommend not using BSA or other blocking proteins unless it is critical for your experiments.
How soluble are venoms?
Whole venoms are soluble up to approximately 300mg/ml in aqueous buffers. Individual fractions may vary, depending on their hydrophobicity.
Is it OK to open the T-VDA in a cell culture hood?
Yes, power weighing hoods are better but the lyophilised venoms are unlikely to be blown out of the wells in fume hoods or cell culture MBSCs.
How safe are venom peptide cosmetics?
Venom peptides designed through our VenomSELECT™ service have been specially selected to avoid the toxic regions and focus on the activity required. They are also tested for in-vitro safety before going forward to human trials.
What claims can you support with venom peptides?
Venoms contain a wide range of active peptides which individually act on a very wide range of receptors and targets. Please see our cosmetic page for more information.